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WHAT IT IS: The rotator cuff is a stabilizing group of muscles and tendons that keep the arm in its joint during movement of the shoulder. An arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a minimally invasive procedure that utilizes very small instruments to reattach rotator cuff tendon tears. Patients who receive an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair experience faster recovery time with less inflammation, discomfort and scaring than an open rotator cuff repair.
WHAT CAUSES IT: Rotator cuff injury is common in people who perform repetitive overhead motions. Most individuals do not experience a single traumatic event that causes the rotator cuff to tear, rather, the rotator cuff tissue simply becomes weak over time. While degenerative tears are more common, traumatic tears to the rotator cuff can still occur. Symptoms include: dull aching pain in the shoulder, inability to sleep on affected shoulder, decreased range of motion, and arm weakness.
WHAT IT IS: A SLAP (Superior Labrum Anterior and Posterior) tear is an injury to the front and back of the cartilage at the point in the shoulder where the bicep attaches to the labrum.
WHAT CAUSES IT: SLAP lesions are caused by either acute trauma or repetitive stress. Some trauma may include: falling on your outstretched arm or shoulder, shoulder dislocation, and catching heavy objects with outstretched arms. Some repetitive stress causes include: repetitive overhead motions from occupations or exercise, wear and tear from usage. Symptoms include: pain with movement or lifting objects (especially overhead), decrease strength and range of motion in affected shoulder, and popping, catching and locking of the joint.
WHAT IT IS: Shoulder debridement surgery is an arthroscopic surgical procedure to remove damaged tissue and loose bodies in the shoulder joint and file down bone spurs if needed. The goal is to decrease pain and increase range of motion.
WHAT CAUSES IT: Causes include injury, trauma, degenerative conditions like osteoarthritis and normal wear and tear. Symptoms typically include (but are not limited to) pain in the affected shoulder(s) and decreased range of motion.
WHAT IT IS: Shoulder decompression surgery is performed on patients who are experiencing shoulder impingement syndrome and involves arthroscopic examination of the ligaments, muscles and tendons in the shoulder joint. This is followed by the smoothing of bone spurs that have been injuring the soft tissues.
WHAT CAUSES IT: Shoulder impingement develops most commonly in occupations that involve repetitive overhead motions or throwing. The shoulder may respond to this repetitive stress by becoming inflamed, forming bone spurs and sometimes tearing through part of the rotator cuff. Symptoms include limited range of motion, discomfort or occasional acute shoulder pain when reaching overhead, into a back pocket or when side sleeping on the injured shoulder.
WHAT IT IS: Thermal capsulorrhaphy is an arthroscopic surgical procedure that uses heat to tighten and stabilize the connective tissue around the shoulder joint.
WHAT CAUSES IT: Shoulder instability describes a spectrum of disorders and is caused by damage to the joint capsule that stretches and loosens the soft tissue. On one end, mild instability causes the joint to become painful and slightly loose. On the other end, severe instability causes the shoulder to repeatedly go out of joint.
WHAT IS IT: When conservative treatment, physical therapy and rest fails to heal stiffness and pain in the shoulder, manipulation of the shoulder under anesthesia may be an appropriate treatment option. During this procedure a physician will move the shoulder through a full range of motion, effectively tearing scar tissue and increasing the knee’s range of motion.
WHAT CAUSES IT: Manipulation of the Shoulder under Anesthesia is a treatment option common to treat frozen shoulder, also known as adhesive capsulitis, a condition characterized by pain and stiffness in the shoulder joint. Frozen shoulder can result from inflammation, thickening, scaring and shrinkage of a capsule that surrounds the shoulder joint. It is common for shoulder injuries to lead to frozen shoulder.
WHAT IS IT: Shoulder arthroscopy utilizes a small camera inserted through an incision in the skin to examine, diagnose and repair tissues inside and around the shoulder joint. This procedure is extremely useful in diagnosing torn tendons, arthritis and other abnormalities within the joint. A diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy is commonly done in conjunction with treatment and repair of the affected region.
WHAT CAUSES IT: A diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy may need to occur preceding treatment to properly diagnose a shoulder injury. Arthritis, shoulder joint dislocation, ligament tears within the shoulder joint, and any trauma to the rotator cuff muscles and tendons may require a diagnostic shoulder arthroscopy as a prerequisite to treatment.
WHAT IS IT: The bicep tendon passes directly through the shoulder join attaching directly to the labrum. Biceps tenodesis is a surgical procedure that most frequently treats biceps tendonitis of the shoulder.
Patient’s experiencing significant biceps tendon symptoms or biceps with tendon inflammation (determined through arthroscopic examination) may be candidates for a biceps tenodesis procedure.
WHAT CAUSES IT: A lifetime of normal activity may cause wear and tear on the shoulder, particularly to the biceps tendon. Routine chores or activities that require repetitive overhead motion may cause shoulder problems including biceps tendinitis. Common athletic activities put individuals at greater risk for this condition include swimming, tennis and baseball.
WHAT IS IT: The rotator cuff is a stabilizing group of muscles and tendons in the shoulder that keep the arm in its joint during movement. A rotator cuff repair procedure repairs or replaces a torn tendon in the shoulder.
WHAT CAUSES IT: Rotator cuff injury is most common in people who perform repetitive overhead motions. Other causes include: using your arm to break a fall, lifting or pulling a heavy item, or an overgrowth of a bone. While degenerative tears from overuse are more common, traumatic tears to the rotator cuff can still occur. Symptoms include: dull aching pain in the shoulder, inability to sleep on affected shoulder, decreased range of motion and arm weakness.
WHAT IS IT: The clavicle, also known as the collarbone, connects the arm to the body. The collarbone is exposed directly under the skin with very little protection or overlying tissue. The bone is located between the shoulder blade and sternum. An open clavicle repair is a surgical procedure done in order to repair a fractured clavicle.
WHAT CAUSES IT: Clavicle fractures are common and often caused by direct impact or trauma. Common sources of clavicle fractures include falls, athletic injury, vehicle trauma and birth injury. Clavicle fractures can be very painful and significantly limit the mobility of the arm. Due to the very thin overlying tissue, a clavicle fracture is often visible to the naked eye.
WHAT IS IT: Total shoulder replacement, also known as total shoulder arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure that can successfully relieve joint pain caused most frequently by arthritis. During a shoulder replacement procedure, damaged or diseased parts of the shoulder are removed and replaced with specially designed artificial components typically constructed of metal and plastic. Following physical therapy and continued consultation after a total shoulder replacement you will be able to return to many of the lifestyle activities you maintained prior to surgery.
WHAT CAUSES IT: Similar to other total joint replacement procedures, there are several factors and conditions that may warrant a total shoulder replacement. Three major forms of arthritis – including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and post-traumatic arthritis – are among the most common contributors of chronic joint pain and disability in the shoulder.